By Robert Wilson
Contiuous casting of non-ferrous metals has been practiced for good over a hundred years. the method has many benefits over static ingot and ebook mold casting, an important being more suitable yield, diminished power intake and relief in manpower, with a consequent relief in price. This e-book presents an account of ways non-stop casting has constructed and the way the method can be utilized inside an engineering atmosphere for casting quite a lot of copper-based alloys and invaluable metals, together with gold and silver, and chosen nickel alloys.
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Extra info for A practical approach to continuous casting of copper-based alloys and precious metals
21 Graphite die insert and copper jacket cooler. 18), to effect maximum cooling it is necessary to ensure intimate contact, copper-graphite. 21 is machined and broached on the ID to give a 'mirror finish'. The OD die shank is machined slightly oversize to the cooler bore to allow final emery lap finish to size. The packers which make up the secondary cooler section are machined to give a tight fit with bore size matching the die insert. The cooler is heated with hot water prior to packer and die insert fitting to allow expansion and ease of fit.
A number of the continuous casting plant manufacturers are supplying die and cooler assemblies of similar design. Thermal efficiency is discussed in Chapter 2. 7 WITHDRAWAL In continuous casting of non-ferrous metals, accuracy of the withdrawal parameters is paramount to the quality of the cast product. -U Fig. 18 Die and cooler assembly for small-diameter rod. ~ Q) ts overowell Q) o o T = t1+t2+t3 -c Time, seconds Fig. 19 Withdrawal sequence. extracting gear required to achieve displacement forces in the range 50 to 100 kN, it is necessary to ensure precise control under any operating conditions.
14 Probe-cooled graphite die assembly. 18 Continuous RET AINING CODLING Casting BOLTS GRAPHITE TOP DIE AT HOT END OF COVER PROBES FEED SUMP DIE Fig. 15 Probe-cooled graphite die for thin strip. surface of the die metal interface This results in solidification of the bottom in advance of the top resulting in an asymmetric condition. Using the adjustable probe coolers it is possible to enhance cooling and solidification at the top surface and thus alter the slope of the surface solidification isotherm.
A practical approach to continuous casting of copper-based alloys and precious metals by Robert Wilson